Phenylacetate (PN)

Dvorit D. SAMID learned about PHENYLACETATE (PN) from Burzynski
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Phenylacetylglutaminate (PAG or PG) and PHENYLACETATE (PN) are metabolites of Phenylbutyrate (PB) and are constituents of antineoplaston AS2-1
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Antineoplastons AS2-1 and AS2-5 are DERIVED FROM A10
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AS2-1=4:1 mixture of PHENYLACETIC ACID (PA) and Phenylacetylglutamine (PAG or PG)
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National Cancer Institute (NCI)
at the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Antineoplastons
General Information:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page2
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PHENYLACETATE (PN)
Year – Pubmed (29,686 entries)
1883 1st entry
1994 Phase 1
1999 Phase 2
2013 latest
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2/8/2013 – Metabolic improvements in intrahepatic porto-systemic venous shunt presenting various metabolic abnormalities by 4-PHENYLACETATE
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23399721/
Clin Chim Acta. 2013 Apr 18;419:52-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2013.01.016. Epub 2013 Feb 8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23399721/
Department of Pediatrics, Takarazuka City Hospital, Takarazuka, Japan.
k2.dion.ne.jp
Clin Chim Acta. 2013 Feb 8. pii: S0009-8981(13)00038-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2013.01.016. [Epub ahead of print]
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http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/search?submit=yes&submit=Go&y=0&fulltext=Samid&x=0&format=standard&hits=80&sortspec=reverse-date&submit=Go

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/search?submit=yes&y=0&fulltext=%22Dvorit+Samid%22&x=0&format=standard&hits=80&sortspec=reverse-date&submit=Go
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4/1/1992PHENYLACETATE
Cancer Res 1992;52:1988-1992
PHENYLACETATE:
A Novel Nontoxic Inducer of Tumor Cell Differentiation
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/
…. PAG (BRI, Houston, TX)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534
Phenylacetic acid (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and PAG (BRI, Houston, TX)
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
(BRI = Burzynski Research Institute)
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf
Phenylacetylglutaminate (PAG or PG) and PHENYLACETATE (PN) are metabolites of Phenylbutyrate (PB) …..
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf#page=1
Dvorit SAMID
Cancer Res. 1992 Apr 1;52(7):1988-92
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland [D. S., S. S.] and Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland [L. T. S.]

↵1 Supported by Elan Pharmaceutical Corporation Grant G174ED.
SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Sherman, l.. T.

(Cancer Res., 52: 1988-1992, 1992
Cancer Res 1992;52:1988-1992

Reference:

12. Rimoldi, D., Srikantan, V., Wilson, V. L., Bassin, R. H., and SAMID, D.
Increased sensitivity of nontumorigenic fibroblasts expressing ras or myc oncogenes to malignant transformation induced by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine.
Cancer Res., 51: 1-7, 1991.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1703037/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1703037/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324
6. SAMID et al., unpublished observations.
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9/15/1992 – Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1381630/
SAMID, D., Yeh, A.. and Prasanna. P.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/
Blood, 80: 1576-1581. 1992
http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract
Blood. 1992 Sep 15;80(6):1576-81.
http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD

References:

15. SAMID D, Shack S, Ti-Sherman L PHENYLACETATE-A novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res 52:1988, 1992
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1372534/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
20. SAMID D, Flessate DM, Friedman RM: Interferon-induced
revertants of ras-transformed cells: Resistance to transformation by specific oncogenes and retransformation by 5-azacytidine. Mol Cell Biol 7:2196, 1987
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2439904/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2439904/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC365343/

http://mcb.asm.org/content/7/6/2196.full.pdf
21. Rimoldi D, Srikantan V, Wilson VL, Bassin RH, SAMID D: Increased sensitivity of nontumorigenic fibroblasts expressing ras or myconcogenes to malignant transformation induced by 5-aza-2‘- deoxycytidine. Cancer Res 51:324, 1991
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1703037/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1703037/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324
34. Dover GJ, Brusilow S, SAMID D: Increased fetal hemoglobin in patients receiving sodium 4-phenylbutyrate. N Engl J Med 327569, 1992
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1378939/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1378939/
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5/1993 – Selective growth arrest and maturation of prostate cancer cells in vitro bv nontoxic, pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE

SAMID. D., Shack. S., and Myers, C. E.

J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288-2295, 1993
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/
J Clin Invest. 1993 May; 91(5): 2288–2295.
doi: 10.1172/JCI116457
PMCID: PMC288233

This study was supported by Elan Pharmaceutical Corporation grant G174ED.

References:

9. SAMID, D., D.M. Flesate, and R.M. Friedman. 1987. Interferon-induced revertants of ras-transformed cells: resistance to transformation by specific oncogenes and retransformation by 5-azacytidine. Mol. Cel. Biol. 7:2196-2200.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2439904/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC365343/

http://mcb.asm.org/content/7/6/2196.full.pdf
13. SAMID, D., S. Shack, and L. T. Sherman. 1992. PHENYLACETATE:

a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res. 52:1988-1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
14. SAMID, D., A. Yeh,and P. Prasanna. 1992. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood. 80:1576-1581.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
17. Dover, G.J., S. Brusilow, and D. SAMID. 1992. Increased fetal hemoglobin in patients receiving sodium 4-phenylbutyrate. N. Engl. J. Med. 327:569-570.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1378939/

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199208203270818
33. Mandler, R., D. Rimoldi, K. Kariko, and D. SAMID. 1991. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator in experimental metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells. Cancer J. 4:316-321.

34. Rimoldi, D., V. Srikantan, V. L. Wilson, R. H. Bassin, and D. SAMID. 1991. Increased sensitivity of nontumerogenic fibroblasts expressing ras or myc oncogenes to malignant transformation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine.
CancerRes.51:1-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1703037/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324
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2/15/1994 – Selective Activity of PHENYLACETATE against Malignant Gliomas:

Resemblance to Fetal Brain Damage in Phenylketonuria
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/
SAMID D., et al.
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891
Cancer Res., 54: 891-895, 1994
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891.full.pdf?sid=0831b0b7-6f89-4d0d-941e-03f12eebc71a
Cancer Res February 15, 1994 54:891-895
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute and Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

References:

2. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Sherman, l.. T. PHENYLACETATE:

a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res., 52: 1988-1992, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
8. SAMID, D., Yeh, A.. and Prasanna. P. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood, 80: 1576-1581. 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
9. SAMID. D., Shack. S., and Myers, C. E. Selective growth arrest and maturation of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic, pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE. J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288-2295, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/
J Clin Invest. 1993 May; 91(5): 2288–2295.
doi: 10.1172/JCI116457
PMCID: PMC288233

6. A. Thibault et al., A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous PHENYLACETATE in patients with cancer, submitted for publication.
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4/1/1994 – A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous PHENYLACETATE in patients with cancer
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8137283
A A Thibault, …, D D SAMID et al.
Cancer Res 54(7):1690-4 (1994), PMID.8137283
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.full.pdf?sid=78d246d7-a4ee-4980-bdaf-b299dc98cbe8
Cancer Res April 1, 1994 54:1690
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690
Cancer Res. 1994 Apr 1;54(7):1690-4.
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.abstract
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.full.pdf
↵1 This study was supported in part by a grant from Elan Pharmaceutical Research Co.

References:

8. SAMID, A., Shack, S., and Sherman, L. T. PHENYLACETATE:

a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res., 52: 1988-1992, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
9. SAMID, D., Yen, A., and Prasana, P. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood, 80: 1576-1581, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
10. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Myers, C. E. Selective growth arrest and phenotypic reversion of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE. J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288-2295, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8486788/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/

http://m.jci.org/articles/view/116457
11. SAMID. D., Ram, Z., Hudgins, W. R., Shack, S., Liu, L., Walbridge, S., Oldfield, E. H., Myers, C. E. Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against malignant gliomas:

resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria. Cancer Res., 54: 891-895, 1994.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891
12. Dover, G. J., Brusilow, S., and SAMID, D. Increased fetal hemoglobin in patients
receiving sodium 4-phenylbutyrate. N. Engl. J. Med., 327: 569-570, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1378939/
13. BURZYNSKI, S. R., Kubove E., Burzynski, B. Treatment of hormonally refractory cancer of the prostate with antineoplaston AS2-1. Drugs Exp. Clin. Res., 16: 361-369, 1990.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2152694/
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6/1/1994 – Growth inhibition, tumor maturation, and extended survival in experimental brain tumors in rats treated with PHENYLACETATE.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8187079/
Ram Z, SAMID D, Walbridge S, et al:
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2934.abstract?ijkey=03bc67e581ef77536842806b949046916458d548&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Cancer Res 54:2934-2927, 1994
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.abstract
Cancer Res. 1994 Jun 1;54(11):2923-7.
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.full.pdf
Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923
References:

1. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Sherman, L. 1. PHENYLACETATE: a novel nontoxic inducer of
tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res., 52: 1988-92, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
2. SAMID, D., Yeh, A., and Prasanna, P. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal
hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood, 80: 1576-81, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/
3. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Myers, C. E. Selective growth arrest and phenotypic
reversion of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic pharmacological concentrations
of PHENYLACETATE. J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288-2295, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/
4. SAMID, D., Ram, Z., Hudgins, W. R., Shack, S., Liu, L., Waibridge, S., Oldfield, E. H., and Myers, C. E. Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against malignant gliomas: resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria. Cancer Res., 54: 891-895, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/
9. BURZYNSKI, S. R., Kubove, E., and Burzynski, B. Treatment of hormonally refractory
cancer of the prostate with antineoplaston AS2-1. Drugs Exp. Clin. Res., 16: 361-9, 1990.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2152694/
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2/8/1995PHENYLACETATE synergizes with retinoic acid in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7829265/
Sidell N, Wada R, Han G, et al: (SAMID D)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910600414/abstract
Int J Cancer 60:507-514, 1995
Int J Cancer. 1995 Feb 8;60(4):507-14.
International Journal of Cancer
Volume 60, Issue 4, pages 507–514, 8 February 1995
Article first published online: 17 JUL 2006
DOI: 10.1002/ijc.2910600414
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (Neuropathology), UCLA School of Medicine.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
4/1995 – Disposition of phenylbutyrate and its metabolites, PHENYLACETATE and phenylacetylglutamine.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7650225/
Piscitelli SC, Thibault A, Figg WD, et al: (SAMID D)
http://m.jcp.sagepub.com/content/35/4/368.abstract?ijkey=74bff0d86ce76b404728762fe2a1bfde1641fa41&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
J Clin Pharmacol 35:368-373, 1995 Abstract
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1995.tb04075.x/abstract;jsessionid=DFDEF1599D764E2845EC2897269C198B.d01t01
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Volume 35, Issue 4, pages 368–373, April 1995
http://jcp.sagepub.com/content/35/4/368
Article first published online: 8 MAR 2013
DOI: 10.1002/j.1552-4604.1995.tb04075.x
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
6/15/1995Phase Istudy of PHENYLACETATE administered twice daily to patients with cancer
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7773944
A A Thibault, D D SAMID, … C E CE Myers
Cancer 75(12):2932-8 (1995), PMID.7773944
Cancer. 1995 Jun 15;75(12):2932-8
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
9/27/1995 – Increased susceptibility of ras-transformed cells to PHENYLACETATE is associated with inhibition of p21ras isoprenylation and phenotypic reversion.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7558439/
Shack S, Chen L-C, Miller AC, et al: (SAMID D)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910630122/abstract
Int J Cancer 63:124-129, 1995
Int J Cancer. 1995 Sep 27;63(1):124-9.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910630122/references
International Journal of Cancer
Volume 63, Issue 1, Article first published online: 17 JUL 2006
DOI: 10.1002/ijc.2910630122
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
10/1995 – Inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation in medulloblastoma and astrocytoma-derived cell lines with PHENYLACETATE.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7674018/
Stockhammer G, Manley GT, Johnson R, et al: (SAMID D)
J Neurosurg 83:672-681, 1995
J Neurosurg. 1995 Oct;83(4):672-81.
Cotzias Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
10/12/1995 – Cytostatic activity of PHENYLACETATE and derivatives against tumor cells:

Correlation with lipophilicity and inhibition of protein prenylation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7488244/
Hudgins WR, Shack S, Myers CE, et al: (SAMID D)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006295295020133
Biochem Pharmacol 50:1273-1279, 1995
Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 Oct 12;50(8):1273-9.
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
2/1996 – Lipid metabolism as a target for brain cancer therapy:

Synergistic activity of lovastatin and sodium PHENYLACETATE against human glioma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8592143/
Prasanna P, Thibault A, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract
J Neurochem 66:710-716, 1996
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract;jsessionid=913EBF64F1FA2FD0D08BD94FDDE391D5.d03t01
J Neurochem. 1996 Feb;66(2):710-6.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract;jsessionid=E929EA030144CC973FECF4DAA1D9D50C.d01t04
Article first published online: 23 NOV 2002
DOI: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
5/1996PHENYLACETATE is an inhibitor of prostatic growth and development in culture.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8627880/
Lipshutz JH, SAMID D, Cunha GR:
J Urol 155:1762-1770, 1996
J Urol. 1996 May;155(5):1762-70.
The Journal of Urology
Volume 155, Issue 5, Pages 1762-1770, May 1996
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

References:

12. SAMID D, Yen A, Prasanna P . Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE . Blood. 1992;80:1576
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
13. SAMID D, Shack S, Sherman LT . PHENYLACETATE: a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation . Cancer Res . 1992;52:1988
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
15. Ram Z, SAMID D, Walbridge S, Oshiro EM, Viola JJ, Tao-Cheng J, et al. Growth inhibition, tumor maturation, and extended survival in experimental brain tumors in rats treated with PHENYLACETATE . Cancer Res . 1994;54:2923
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8187079/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923
16. Liu L , Shack S , Stetler-Stevenson WG , Hudgins WR , SAMID D . Differentiation of cultured human melanoma cells induced by the aromatic fatty acids PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate . J. Invest. Dermatol . 1994;103:335
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8077698/
18. SAMID D , Shack S , Myers CE . Selective growth arrest and phenotypic reversion of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE . J. Clin. Invest . 1993;91:2288
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8486788/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/

http://m.jci.org/articles/view/116457
19. Thibault A, Cooper MR, Figg WD, Venzon DJ, Sartor O, Tompkins AE, et al. (SAMID D) A phase 1 and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous PHENYLACETATE in patients with cancer . Cancer Res . 1994;54:1690
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8137283/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690
34. Sidell N, Wada R, Han G, Chang B, Shack S, Moore T, et al. al. (SAMID D). PHENYLACETATE synergizes with retinoic acid in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells . Int. J. Cancer . 1995;60:507
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7829265/
35. SAMID D, Ram Z, Hudgins WR, Shack S, Liu L, Walbridge S, et al. Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against gliomas: resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria . Cancer Res . 1994;54:891
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/
48. Fibach E, Prasanna P, Rodgers GP, SAMID D. Enhanced fetal hemoglobin production by PHENYLACETATE and 4-phenylbutyrate in erythroid precursor derived from normal donors and patients with sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia. Blood. 1993;82:2203
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7691251/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/82/7/2203.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/82/7/2203.full.pdf
49. George J , Dover GJ , Brusilow S , SAMID D . Increased fetal hemoglobin in patients receiving sodium 4-phenylbutyrate . N. Engl. J. Med . 1992;327:569
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1378939/
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
8/23/1996 – Activation of a human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor by the antitumor agent PHENYLACETATE and its analogs.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8759039/
Pineau T, Hudgins WR, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006295296003401
Biochem Pharmacol 52:659-667, 1996
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Aug 23;52(4):659-67.
Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
9/1996 – The differentiating agent PHENYLACETATE increases prostate-specific antigen production by prostate cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8827086/
Walls R, Thibault A, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D)
Prostate 29:177-182, 1996
Prostate. 1996 Sep;29(3):177-82.
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
12/1996 – Up-regulation and functional role of p21Waf1/Cip1 during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells by PHENYLACETATE.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8959328/
Gorospe M, Shack S, Guyton KZ, et al: (SAMID D)
http://cgd.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/7/12/1609.pdf
Cell Growth Differ 7:1609-1615, 1996
Cell Growth Differ. 1996 Dec;7(12):1609-15.
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
and Experimental Therapeutics Program, University of Virginia
Cancer Center, Charlottesville, Virginia

References:
1. SAMID, 0., Shack, S., and Myers, C. Selective growth arrest and phenotypic reversion of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE. J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288- 2295, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8486788/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/

http://m.jci.org/articles/view/116457
2. SAMID, D., Ram, Z., Hudgins, W. A., Shack, S., Liu, L, Walbridge, S., Oldfield, E. H., and Myers, C. E. Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against malignant gliomas: resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria. Cancer Res., 54: 891-895, 1994.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/

http://hwmaint.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/4/891
7. SAMID, D., Yeh, A., and Prasanna, P. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood, 80: 1576-1581, 1992
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
8. Shack, S., Miller, A., Liu, L., Prasanna, P., Thibault, A., and SAMID, D. Vulnerability of multidrug-resistant tumor cells to the aromatic fatty acids PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate. Clin. Cancer Res., 2: 865-872, 1996.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9816242/

http://m.clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/2/5/865.abstract

http://m.clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/2/5/865.full.pdf
25. Shack, S., Chen, L-C., Miller, A. C., Danesi, A., and SAMID, D. Increased susceptibility of ras-transformed cells to PHENYLACETATE is associated with inhibition of p2i isoprenylation and phenotypic reversion. Int. J. Cancer, 63: 124-129, 1995.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7558439/
29. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Sherman, L T. PHENYLACETATE. A novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res., 52: 1988- 1992, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
30. Thibault, A., SAMID, D., Cooper, M. A., Figg, W. 0., Tompkins, A. C., Patronas, N., Headlea, 0. J., Kohler, 0. A., Venzon, 0. J., and Myers, C. E. Phase I study of PHENYLACETATE administered twice daily to patients with cancer. Cancer (Phila.), 75: 2932-2938, 1995.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7773944/

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-0142(19950615)75:12%3C2932::AID-CNCR2820751221%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
1997PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate as novel, nontoxic differentiation inducers
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9547596
D D SAMID, W R WR Hudgins, … C E CE Myers
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4615-5325-0_67
Adv Exp Med Biol (1997), PMID.9547596
http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-1-4615-5325-0_67.pdf
Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;400A:501-5
DOI
10.1007/978-1-4615-5325-0_67
Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation, and Radiation Injury 2
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Volume 400, 1997, pp 501-505
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD USA
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
8/1997 – Modulation of radiation response of human tumor cells by the differentiation inducers, PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9269314/
Miller AC, Whittaker T, Thibault A, et al: (SAMID D)
Int J Radiat Biol 72:211-218, 1997
Int J Radiat Biol. 1997 Aug;72(2):211-8.
Armed Forces Radiobiology, Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
3/1999Phase II study of PHENYLACETATE in patients with recurrent malignant glioma:
a North American Brain Tumor Consortium report
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10071293/
S M Chang, J G Kuhn, … M D Prados
J Clin Oncol 17(3):984-90 (1999), PMID.10071293
J Clin Oncol. 1999 Mar;17(3):984-90
http://m.jco.ascopubs.org/content/17/3/984.long
References:

1. ↵ Hudgins WR, Shack S, Myers CE, et al: (SAMID D) Cytostatic activity of PHENYLACETATE and derivatives against tumor cells:

Correlation with lipophilicity and inhibition of protein prenylation. Biochem Pharmacol 50:1273-1279, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7488244/

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006295295020133
2. SAMID D, Ram Z, Hudgins WR, et al: Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against malignant gliomas:

Resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria. Cancer Res 54:891-895, 1994
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891.abstract?ijkey=26b1701d60729aa2f907a74e3ae927f63a015c45&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891
3. Stockhammer G, Manley GT, Johnson R, et al: (SAMID D) Inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation in medulloblastoma and astrocytoma-derived cell lines with PHENYLACETATE. J Neurosurg 83:672-681, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7674018/
4. ↵ Ram Z, SAMID D, Walbridge S, et al: Growth inhibition, tumor maturation, and extended survival in experimental brain tumors in rats treated with PHENYLACETATE. Cancer Res 54:2934-2927, 1994
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8187079/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2934.abstract?ijkey=03bc67e581ef77536842806b949046916458d548&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923
13. ↵ Gorospe M, Shack S, Guyton KZ, et al: (SAMID D) Up-regulation and functional role of p21Waf1/Cip1 during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells by PHENYLACETATE. Cell Growth Differ 7:1609-1615, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8959328/

http://cgd.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/7/12/1609.pdf
14. Walls R, Thibault A, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D) The differentiating agent PHENYLACETATE increases prostate-specific antigen production by prostate cells. Prostate 29:177-182, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8827086/
15. Lipshutz JH, SAMID D, Cunha GR: PHENYLACETATE is an inhibitor of prostatic growth and development in culture. J Urol 155:1762-1770, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8627880/
16. ↵ Sidell N, Wada R, Han G, et al: (SAMID D) PHENYLACETATE synergizes with retinoic acid in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells. Int J Cancer 60:507-514, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7829265/
17. ↵ Thibault A, SAMID D, Cooper MR, et al: Phase I study of PHENYLACETATE administered twice daily to patients with cancer. Cancer 75:2932-8, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7773944/
18. ↵ Thibault A, Cooper MR, Figg WD, et al: (SAMID D) A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous PHENYLACETATE in patients with cancer. Cancer Res 54:1690-1694, 1994
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8137283/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.abstract

http://hwmaint.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/7/1690

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.full.pdf

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690
20. ↵ Shack S, Chen L-C, Miller AC, et al: (SAMID D) Increased susceptibility of ras-transformed cells to PHENYLACETATE is associated with inhibition of p21ras isoprenylation and phenotypic reversion. Int J Cancer 63:124-129, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7558439/

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910630122/abstract
21. ↵ SAMID D, Shack S, Sherman LT: PHENYLACETATE:

A novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res 52:1988-1992, 1992
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract?ijkey=b0c2c07340bcd5d9d1bb114912e8e4b98226c9fd&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf
22. ↵ Prasanna P, Thibault A, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D) Lipid metabolism as a target for brain cancer therapy:

Synergistic activity of lovastatin and sodium PHENYLACETATE against human glioma cells. J Neurochem 66:710-716, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8592143/

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract;jsessionid=913EBF64F1FA2FD0D08BD94FDDE391D5.d03t01
24. ↵ Pineau T, Hudgins WR, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D) Activation of a human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor by the antitumor agent PHENYLACETATE and its analogs. Biochem Pharmacol 52:659-667, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8759039/

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006295296003401
27. ↵ Miller AC, Whittaker T, Thibault A, et al: (SAMID D) Modulation of radiation response of human tumor cells by the differentiation inducers, PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate. Int J Radiat Biol 72:211-218, 1997
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9269314/
28. ↵ Piscitelli SC, Thibault A, Figg WD, et al: (SAMID D) Disposition of phenylbutyrate and its metabolites, PHENYLACETATE and phenylacetylglutamine. J Clin Pharmacol 35:368-373, 1995 Abstract
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7650225/

http://m.jcp.sagepub.com/content/35/4/368.abstract?ijkey=74bff0d86ce76b404728762fe2a1bfde1641fa41&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1995.tb04075.x/abstract;jsessionid=DFDEF1599D764E2845EC2897269C198B.d01t01

http://jcp.sagepub.com/content/35/4/368

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