“The Amazing Meeting” (I don’t think it means, what you think it says it means): 2 Intellectually and Ethically Challenged Individuals, Twaddle at TAM 2013

Gentlemen, I start your Insolence 😇
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(1:30) [1]
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The “motto” of “The Amazing (Not so Much) Meeting” is “Fighting Fakers,” which is apropos, since I doubt that “Orac” the “Check my Facts” Hack of Dr. David H. Gorski, grasps the irony, that when I read some of his blog articles, you could easily switch his name with the name of some individual he is flogging, and the proverbial shoe fits, and:
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(1:40)
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“This is a guy who sometimes fools even, you know, physicians”
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(I couldn’t have said it better, myself) 😊
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(2:47)
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He states:

“There is a long segment about “The Skeptics”

(applause) 😝
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(4:25)
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“His lawyer wrote a book”

“About a half of it is about Burzynski [4]
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6:00
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Gorski mentions that Burzynski noticed that there were higher levels of these chemicals in healthy people, than people with cancer
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Whereas, Burzynski is on record as having said [5]:

” . . . healthy people have abundance of these chemicals in blood
Cancer patients have varied to none

I did NOT know before now, that GorskGeek thinks that “none” is a “level” 😶
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He continues:

AS2.1 – which is a chemical called phenylacetic acid, which is a byproduct of metabolism that turns into phenylacetylglutamine by the liver

A10 – soluble is basically the same thing
It breaks down to PAG
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WOW !

I thought it was: AS2 1 😊

They are “basically the same thing” ? 😳

What does Burzynski say ? [6]

Phenylacetylglutaminate (PG) and Phenylacetate (PN) are metabolites of Phenylbutyrate (PB) and are constituents of antineoplaston AS2-1

PG and PN are naturally occurring in human body as result of metabolism of phenylalanine in liver and kidneys

formulation of antineoplaston AS2-1 is 4:1 mixture of synthetic PN and PG

A10 is 4:1 mixture of PG and iso-PG

That does NOT look like “basically the same thing” to me 😛

20131111-160455.jpg
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(6:50)
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Gorski founders on:

“And these are substances which were actually studied in the ’50’s and ’60’s and not found to be particularly, um, promising, but, he didn’t know that then”
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GorskGeek has #FAILED miserably to prove that on his blogs [7] 😄
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(8:00)
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Gorski comments about Burzynski’s “animal testing,” “species specific” claims:

“There are ways of getting around that”
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But Gorski, again, has #FAILED miserably to prove it [8] 😅
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(12:00)
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Gorski makes lame excuses about the NCI phase II clinical trial [9] 😖
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(12:50)
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Gorski claims Burzynski was indicted for insurance fraud in the 1997 case 😱
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GorskGeek, care to try and prove that one also ? [10] 😃
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(14:25)
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Gorski then states that out of 61 trials on clinicaltrials . gov, “most” are “closed or unknown”
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GorskGeek #FAILED again 😁

At the time it was:

1 – Not Yet Recruiting
(OPEN)(Phase 3)
1 – COMPLETED
2 – WITHDRAWN
(Withdrawn due to slow enrollment)
7 – WITHDRAWN
(This study has been withdrawn prior to enrollment)
(9=WITHDRAWN)
10 – Recruiting
(10=OPEN)
40 – Active, not recruiting –
(40=CLOSED)
61 =TOTAL
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(15:20)
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Gorski attempts to go all “legal eagle”:

“Listen to Burzynski’s lawyer!”

“You listen to Burzynski’s lawyer; and, and I swear I don’t understand, like why Burzynski would let him, let his lawyer say stuff this damning in his own book, but he does”

“So, get a load of some of these quotes, referring to one of the clinical trials, he says:”

“It was a joke”

“. . . there could not be any possibility of meaningful data coming out of the so-called clinical trial, it was all an artifice, that, you know, designed so that they could continue giving the treatment

“The FDA wanted all of his patients to be on an IND, so, that’s what we did”
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Gorski, attorney Rick Jaffe is an American, living in America NOT the formerly communist Poland

He can say whatever he wants

GorskGeek is NOT a lawyer 😓

And there’s an excellent reason why

Nor is he schooled in the proper usage of the English language

FACT:

” . . . the so-called clinical trial . . .”

Any human being with a modicum of intelligence about the English language, understands that the term “clinical trial” is singular, i.e. one

Burzynski’s lawyer is obviously referring to the CAN-1 clinical trial mentioned in Burzynski’s 11/25/1997 Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filing [11]

One trial that is retrospective is CAN-1 Clinical Trial
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CAN-1 PHASE II STUDY OF ANTINEOPLASTONS A10 AND AS2-1 IN

PATIENTS WITH REFRACTORY MALIGNANCIES

133 patients
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Clinical trial of patients treated by Dr. Burzynski through 2/23/1996

FDA has indicated it will not accept data generated by this trial since it was not a wholly prospective one
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Gorski continues his trend of #FAILURES when he mentions the additional types of treatments that Burzynski was offering, but he #FAILED to mention [12] 😂
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” … in 1997, his medical practice was expanded to include traditional cancer treatment options such as chemotherapy, gene targeted therapy, immunotherapy and hormonal therapy in response to FDA requirements that cancer patients utilize more traditional cancer treatment options in order to be eligible to participate in the Company’s Antineoplaston clinical trials”
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(18:20)
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Gorski addresses the case of Tori Moreno
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Kim Moreno states:

“We originally were at Miller’s Children at Long Beach Memorial and then went to City of Hope

“We also sent her MRI’s to Dr. Fred Epstein in New York to be looked at”

Gorski suggests that 3 different opinions could have misdiagnosed Tori Moreno

You can read an interview with Tori’s mother [13]
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(19:45)
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Gorski goes on to mention Burzynski patients going to Texas Children’s Hospital with hypernatremia issues
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Gorski, do you mean this ? [14]

The changing pattern of hypernatremia in hospitalized children

Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children’s Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA
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(20:00)
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Gorski mangles the case of Hannah Bradley, who had a grade 3 anaplastic astrocytoma brain tumor

GorskGeek makes excuses like “spontaneous remission”, but then provides no citation, reference, or link to a case of such a tumor having spontaneously exhibited remission [15]
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(20:40)
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Gorski states that antineoplastons are chemotherapy
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No, Gorski, antineoplaston are:

“…an unapproved drug, not ordinary “chemotherapy [16] 😣
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(21:53)
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Gorski claims in regard to Burzynski’s personalized gene-targeted therapy:

” . . . gives to the patient without regard for synergistic toxicity

“Boom, there you go”
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Gorski’s #FAIL rate continues, as Burzynski has stated that phase 2 and 3 publications are reviewed as part of this process [17]

Gorski, “BOOM, THERE YOU GO” ッ
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Gorski, you should hire out to the Democratic Party as their mascot, because you must be the biggest pompous ASS I’ve ever seen 😜

Gorski, my advice: don’t quit your day job, HACK 😷
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The #TAM2013 audience then has to suffer through 22:36 of the blatherskite of Robert J. (don’t call me Bobby) “Bob” Blaskiewicz Blatherskitewicz [2]

He blathers about the “dozen,” “17,” “16 dead,” “pancreatic cancer,” “Joseph, who was alive but died well within the life expectancy given his diagnosis,” “Joann, who was alive but died within a year of starting therapy,” “Irene S., who was dead within month,” “Maxine, who was already dead,” the “103 in 2011,” “63 in mid-June,” “17 on original 1999 site,” “about 3 added a year,” the “about 50 stories,” “1/10th of patient names gathered,” “Amelia S. – 7, tumor breaking up,” “Chase,” “Cody – 1994, 20 years ago, 2 visits, 6 weeks treatment breaking up,” “David,” “Janet, 3 – 5 yrs., oncologist, now dead, ovarian cancer,” “Pete took video down,” “8,000 patients,” “probable ischemic necrosis,” “13 yr. old, getting worse getting better, vomited – Marlene, nurse,” “Rory died 2005,” “Supatra, swelling, last wed., brain tumor,” “Side-effect, 2%, sodium load,” “Andrea, U.S. News and World Report, 30% chance recovery, glioblastoma, ANP in luggage, died on plane,” “Cathy wanted to be on ANP, Greg Burzynski, found out only brain tumor,” “Denise D. breast cancer,” and finally:
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(18:45)
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” … and light as many fires under his butt as we can
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Mentions Rick Jaffe’s book Galileo’s Lawyer

IT’S ALL ABOUT THE PATIENTS [4]
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All you need to know about Blaskiewicz is:

“White man speak with forked tongue” [18]
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The 3rd video is a panel discussion, which includes “man-crush” tag-team [3]

Robert Blaskiewicz and David Gorski
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(8:00)
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Bob says:

“Yeah, I’m not that type of doctor
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Bob, the correct answer for you, is:

“I’m NOT a doctor” QUACK
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(13:05)
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Gorski gabs that he’s a:

“Game of Thrones Geek”
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I just knew I was right, GorskGeek [19]
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(14:00)
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The only female panelist mentions “bureaucrats”, “wimps”, and “people without balls”
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2 out of 3 ain’t bad

She describes the Bob and David show to a T
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(15:00)
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The claim is made that a Burzynski physician appeared on the Burzynski Facebook page announcing results
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(16:00)
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Gorski #whines that the Texas Medical Board wasn’t successful in shutting Burzynski down because of “politics”
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LAUGHABLE
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(20:55)
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Gorski gives his usual excuse:

“He’s not an oncologist”
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GorskiGeek, that claim is as dead as apparently, quite a number of your brain cells [15]
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(34:40)
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Audience members are given the opportunity to speak, and this is the garbage served up:
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“Hi, this is Susan

Ah, don’t forget to mention that Wikipedia has been a major battlefield

We’ve had 23,000 views to the clinic’s page this last month, also rebutr . . .”
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“Control the flow of information”
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Gorski pipes up:

“What she said”
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(35:20)
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Blatherskitewicz chimes in:

“When it comes to Wikipedia can I just mention that is, that is, that that is so effective that Wikipedia was singled out in the most recent Burzynski movie
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Gorski chirps:

“Yes”
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Bob yacks:

“as being controlled by evil skeptics
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Gorski ejaculates:

“No, seriously”
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Bob bleats:

“No”

(applause)
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“You have to unleash the evil hoards of skeptics

“Wahahaha” 👿
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Dr. Stanislaw Burzynski on Wikipedia:

“Simply don’t pay attention to it, because it, it’s not true”

“You won’t be able to, do any, clinical research which we do, without convincing evidence, especially when you have the most powerful agency in the government which is against you

“So they would love to find something which is wrong with what we are doing”

“Ah, so the fact that they’ve, um, agreed that what we have has value, and they allow us to do phase 3 clinical trials it means that we are right”

“Because, uh, uh, nobody who didn’t have any, concrete evidence that it works, would be able to go as far”

“So whatever Wikipedia says, well, I don’t care for them

(laughing) [5]
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Enlightening ?

Inspiring ?

Amazing ?

Hypocrites

Apparatchiks [20]
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REFERENCES:
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[1]David Gorski – Why We Fight (Part I): Stanislaw Burzynski Versus Science-Based Medicine – TAM 2013 11/8/2013 (22:44)
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[2]Robert Blaskiewicz – Why We Fight (Part II): It’s All About The Patients – TAM 2013 11/8/2013 (22:36)
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[3] – Medical Cranks And Quacks
TAM 2013 JREF
11/8/2013 (42:42)
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[4]“Galileo’s Lawyer” Richard A. Jaffe, Esq.
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http://www.richardjaffe.com
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[5] – 11/9/2013 – Pete Cohen chats with Dr. Stanislaw Burzynski:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/11/09/pete-cohen-chats-with-dr-stanislaw-burzynski/
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[6] – 6/2012 – Journal of Cancer Therapy, 2012, 3, 192-200 doi:10.4236/jct.2012.33028 Published Online June 2012, Pg. 192
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http://www.burzynskiclinic.com/images/stories/Publications/9219.pdf
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[7]Burzynski: Oh, RATS!!!:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/07/26/the-lancet-oncology-peer-review-team-d-12-01519-fail-2/
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[8] – Critiquing: How Stanislaw Burzynski became Burzynski the Brave Maverick Doctor, part 1:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/07/22/critiquing-how-stanislaw-burzynski-became-burzynski-the-brave-maverick-doctor-part-1/
======================================
[9] – 9/19/2013 – Critiquing: National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) CancerNet “fact sheet”:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/09/19/critiquing-national-cancer-institute-nci-at-the-national-institutes-of-health-nih-cancernet/
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[10] – 9/25/2013 – Critiquing: National Council Against Health Fraud, Inc. – NCAHF News: JURY NULLIFICATION THWARTS BURZYNSKI CONVICTION:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/09/25/critiquing-national-council-against-health-fraud-inc-ncahf-news-jury-nullification-thwarts-burzynski-conviction/
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[11] – 7/9/2013 – Burzynski: The Original 72 Phase II Clinical Trials:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/07/09/burzynski-the-original-72-phase-ii-clinical-trials/
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[12] – 4/26/2013 – Burzynski: FDA requirements that cancer patients utilize more traditional cancer treatment options in order to be eligible to participate in the Company’s Antineoplaston CLINICAL TRIALS:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/04/26/burzynski-fda-requirements-that-cancer-patients-utilize-more-traditional-cancer-treatment-options-in-order-to-be-eligible-to-participate-in-the-companys-antineoplaston-clinical-trials/
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[13] – Tori Moreno
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http://www.cancerinform.org/aburzinterview2.html
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[14] – 9/1999 – Pediatrics. 1999 Sep;104(3 Pt 1):435-9
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10469766/
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[15] – 11/2/2013 – Critiquing: Dr. Stanislaw Burzynski’s cancer “success” stories:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/11/02/critiquing-dr-stanislaw-burzynskis-cancer-success-stories/
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10/25/2013 – Hannah Bradley – I Feel Empowered, In Control Of My Body: Four Women On Fighting Cancer With Alternative Therapies http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/10383724/I-feel-empowered-in-control-of-my-body-four-women-on-fighting-cancer-with-alternative-therapies.html
——————————————————————
https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/10/25/hannah-bradley-i-feel-empowered-in-control-of-my-body-four-women-on-fighting-cancer-with-alternative-therapies-httpwww-telegraph-co-ukhealth10383724i-feel-empowered-in-control-of-my-body-fo/
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[16] – NOT ORDINARY CHEMOTHERAPY
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https://bulk.resource.org/courts.gov/c/F3/27/27.F3d.153.93-2071.html
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[17] – 9/4/2013 – University of Michigan, where is alum Dr. David H. “Orac” Gorski’s Grapefruits ?:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/09/04/university-of-michigan-where-is-alum-dr-david-h-orac-gorskis-grapefruits/
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[18] – 10/13/2013 – Why “The Skeptics™” Perfessor Robert J. (don’t call me “Bobby”) “Bob” Blaskiewicz (@rjblaskiewicz) of University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire, “Fame,” is a Coward and a Liar:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/10/13/why-the-skeptics-perfessor-robert-j-dont-call-me-bobby-bob-blaskiewicz-rjblaskiewicz-of-university-of-wisconsin-eau-claire-fame-is-a-coward-and-a-liar/
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[19] – 10/27/2013 – “The Skeptics™” Burzynski Bias, Censorship, Lies, and Alibi’s: September 28, 2013 “The Skeptics™” Burzynski discussion: By Bob Blaskiewicz – 2:19:51
——————————————————————
https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/10/27/the-skeptics-lie-lied-lies-liars-lying-burzynski-bias-censorship-lies-and-alibis-september-28-2013-the-skeptics-burzynski-discussion-by-bob-blaskiewic/
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[20] – 11/9/2013 – Wikipedia Articles:
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https://stanislawrajmundburzynski.wordpress.com/2013/09/11/burzynski-timeline/
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Phenylacetate (PN)

Dvorit D. SAMID learned about PHENYLACETATE (PN) from Burzynski
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
Phenylacetylglutaminate (PAG or PG) and PHENYLACETATE (PN) are metabolites of Phenylbutyrate (PB) and are constituents of antineoplaston AS2-1
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
Antineoplastons AS2-1 and AS2-5 are DERIVED FROM A10
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
AS2-1=4:1 mixture of PHENYLACETIC ACID (PA) and Phenylacetylglutamine (PAG or PG)
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
at the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Antineoplastons
General Information:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page2
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
PHENYLACETATE (PN)
Year – Pubmed (29,686 entries)
1883 1st entry
1994 Phase 1
1999 Phase 2
2013 latest
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
2/8/2013 – Metabolic improvements in intrahepatic porto-systemic venous shunt presenting various metabolic abnormalities by 4-PHENYLACETATE
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23399721/
Clin Chim Acta. 2013 Apr 18;419:52-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2013.01.016. Epub 2013 Feb 8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/23399721/
Department of Pediatrics, Takarazuka City Hospital, Takarazuka, Japan.
k2.dion.ne.jp
Clin Chim Acta. 2013 Feb 8. pii: S0009-8981(13)00038-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2013.01.016. [Epub ahead of print]
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/search?submit=yes&submit=Go&y=0&fulltext=Samid&x=0&format=standard&hits=80&sortspec=reverse-date&submit=Go

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/search?submit=yes&y=0&fulltext=%22Dvorit+Samid%22&x=0&format=standard&hits=80&sortspec=reverse-date&submit=Go
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
4/1/1992PHENYLACETATE
Cancer Res 1992;52:1988-1992
PHENYLACETATE:
A Novel Nontoxic Inducer of Tumor Cell Differentiation
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/
…. PAG (BRI, Houston, TX)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534
Phenylacetic acid (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) and PAG (BRI, Houston, TX)
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
(BRI = Burzynski Research Institute)
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf
Phenylacetylglutaminate (PAG or PG) and PHENYLACETATE (PN) are metabolites of Phenylbutyrate (PB) …..
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf#page=1
Dvorit SAMID
Cancer Res. 1992 Apr 1;52(7):1988-92
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland [D. S., S. S.] and Department of Pathology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland [L. T. S.]

↵1 Supported by Elan Pharmaceutical Corporation Grant G174ED.
SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Sherman, l.. T.

(Cancer Res., 52: 1988-1992, 1992
Cancer Res 1992;52:1988-1992

Reference:

12. Rimoldi, D., Srikantan, V., Wilson, V. L., Bassin, R. H., and SAMID, D.
Increased sensitivity of nontumorigenic fibroblasts expressing ras or myc oncogenes to malignant transformation induced by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine.
Cancer Res., 51: 1-7, 1991.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1703037/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1703037/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324
6. SAMID et al., unpublished observations.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
9/15/1992 – Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1381630/
SAMID, D., Yeh, A.. and Prasanna. P.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/
Blood, 80: 1576-1581. 1992
http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract
Blood. 1992 Sep 15;80(6):1576-81.
http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD

References:

15. SAMID D, Shack S, Ti-Sherman L PHENYLACETATE-A novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res 52:1988, 1992
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1372534/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
20. SAMID D, Flessate DM, Friedman RM: Interferon-induced
revertants of ras-transformed cells: Resistance to transformation by specific oncogenes and retransformation by 5-azacytidine. Mol Cell Biol 7:2196, 1987
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2439904/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2439904/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC365343/

http://mcb.asm.org/content/7/6/2196.full.pdf
21. Rimoldi D, Srikantan V, Wilson VL, Bassin RH, SAMID D: Increased sensitivity of nontumorigenic fibroblasts expressing ras or myconcogenes to malignant transformation induced by 5-aza-2‘- deoxycytidine. Cancer Res 51:324, 1991
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1703037/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1703037/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324
34. Dover GJ, Brusilow S, SAMID D: Increased fetal hemoglobin in patients receiving sodium 4-phenylbutyrate. N Engl J Med 327569, 1992
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1378939/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1378939/
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
5/1993 – Selective growth arrest and maturation of prostate cancer cells in vitro bv nontoxic, pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE

SAMID. D., Shack. S., and Myers, C. E.

J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288-2295, 1993
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/
J Clin Invest. 1993 May; 91(5): 2288–2295.
doi: 10.1172/JCI116457
PMCID: PMC288233

This study was supported by Elan Pharmaceutical Corporation grant G174ED.

References:

9. SAMID, D., D.M. Flesate, and R.M. Friedman. 1987. Interferon-induced revertants of ras-transformed cells: resistance to transformation by specific oncogenes and retransformation by 5-azacytidine. Mol. Cel. Biol. 7:2196-2200.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2439904/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC365343/

http://mcb.asm.org/content/7/6/2196.full.pdf
13. SAMID, D., S. Shack, and L. T. Sherman. 1992. PHENYLACETATE:

a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res. 52:1988-1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
14. SAMID, D., A. Yeh,and P. Prasanna. 1992. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood. 80:1576-1581.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
17. Dover, G.J., S. Brusilow, and D. SAMID. 1992. Increased fetal hemoglobin in patients receiving sodium 4-phenylbutyrate. N. Engl. J. Med. 327:569-570.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1378939/

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199208203270818
33. Mandler, R., D. Rimoldi, K. Kariko, and D. SAMID. 1991. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator in experimental metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells. Cancer J. 4:316-321.

34. Rimoldi, D., V. Srikantan, V. L. Wilson, R. H. Bassin, and D. SAMID. 1991. Increased sensitivity of nontumerogenic fibroblasts expressing ras or myc oncogenes to malignant transformation induced by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine.
CancerRes.51:1-7.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1703037/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/51/1/324
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
2/15/1994 – Selective Activity of PHENYLACETATE against Malignant Gliomas:

Resemblance to Fetal Brain Damage in Phenylketonuria
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/
SAMID D., et al.
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891
Cancer Res., 54: 891-895, 1994
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891.full.pdf?sid=0831b0b7-6f89-4d0d-941e-03f12eebc71a
Cancer Res February 15, 1994 54:891-895
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, Division of Cancer Treatment, National Cancer Institute and Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

References:

2. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Sherman, l.. T. PHENYLACETATE:

a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res., 52: 1988-1992, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
8. SAMID, D., Yeh, A.. and Prasanna. P. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood, 80: 1576-1581. 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
9. SAMID. D., Shack. S., and Myers, C. E. Selective growth arrest and maturation of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic, pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE. J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288-2295, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/
J Clin Invest. 1993 May; 91(5): 2288–2295.
doi: 10.1172/JCI116457
PMCID: PMC288233

6. A. Thibault et al., A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous PHENYLACETATE in patients with cancer, submitted for publication.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
4/1/1994 – A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous PHENYLACETATE in patients with cancer
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8137283
A A Thibault, …, D D SAMID et al.
Cancer Res 54(7):1690-4 (1994), PMID.8137283
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.full.pdf?sid=78d246d7-a4ee-4980-bdaf-b299dc98cbe8
Cancer Res April 1, 1994 54:1690
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690
Cancer Res. 1994 Apr 1;54(7):1690-4.
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.abstract
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.full.pdf
↵1 This study was supported in part by a grant from Elan Pharmaceutical Research Co.

References:

8. SAMID, A., Shack, S., and Sherman, L. T. PHENYLACETATE:

a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res., 52: 1988-1992, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
9. SAMID, D., Yen, A., and Prasana, P. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood, 80: 1576-1581, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
10. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Myers, C. E. Selective growth arrest and phenotypic reversion of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE. J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288-2295, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8486788/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/

http://m.jci.org/articles/view/116457
11. SAMID. D., Ram, Z., Hudgins, W. R., Shack, S., Liu, L., Walbridge, S., Oldfield, E. H., Myers, C. E. Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against malignant gliomas:

resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria. Cancer Res., 54: 891-895, 1994.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891
12. Dover, G. J., Brusilow, S., and SAMID, D. Increased fetal hemoglobin in patients
receiving sodium 4-phenylbutyrate. N. Engl. J. Med., 327: 569-570, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1378939/
13. BURZYNSKI, S. R., Kubove E., Burzynski, B. Treatment of hormonally refractory cancer of the prostate with antineoplaston AS2-1. Drugs Exp. Clin. Res., 16: 361-369, 1990.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2152694/
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
6/1/1994 – Growth inhibition, tumor maturation, and extended survival in experimental brain tumors in rats treated with PHENYLACETATE.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8187079/
Ram Z, SAMID D, Walbridge S, et al:
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2934.abstract?ijkey=03bc67e581ef77536842806b949046916458d548&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Cancer Res 54:2934-2927, 1994
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.abstract
Cancer Res. 1994 Jun 1;54(11):2923-7.
http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.full.pdf
Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland.
http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923
References:

1. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Sherman, L. 1. PHENYLACETATE: a novel nontoxic inducer of
tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res., 52: 1988-92, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
2. SAMID, D., Yeh, A., and Prasanna, P. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal
hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood, 80: 1576-81, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/
3. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Myers, C. E. Selective growth arrest and phenotypic
reversion of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic pharmacological concentrations
of PHENYLACETATE. J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288-2295, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/
4. SAMID, D., Ram, Z., Hudgins, W. R., Shack, S., Liu, L., Waibridge, S., Oldfield, E. H., and Myers, C. E. Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against malignant gliomas: resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria. Cancer Res., 54: 891-895, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/
9. BURZYNSKI, S. R., Kubove, E., and Burzynski, B. Treatment of hormonally refractory
cancer of the prostate with antineoplaston AS2-1. Drugs Exp. Clin. Res., 16: 361-9, 1990.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/2152694/
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
2/8/1995PHENYLACETATE synergizes with retinoic acid in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7829265/
Sidell N, Wada R, Han G, et al: (SAMID D)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910600414/abstract
Int J Cancer 60:507-514, 1995
Int J Cancer. 1995 Feb 8;60(4):507-14.
International Journal of Cancer
Volume 60, Issue 4, pages 507–514, 8 February 1995
Article first published online: 17 JUL 2006
DOI: 10.1002/ijc.2910600414
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (Neuropathology), UCLA School of Medicine.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
4/1995 – Disposition of phenylbutyrate and its metabolites, PHENYLACETATE and phenylacetylglutamine.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7650225/
Piscitelli SC, Thibault A, Figg WD, et al: (SAMID D)
http://m.jcp.sagepub.com/content/35/4/368.abstract?ijkey=74bff0d86ce76b404728762fe2a1bfde1641fa41&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
J Clin Pharmacol 35:368-373, 1995 Abstract
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1995.tb04075.x/abstract;jsessionid=DFDEF1599D764E2845EC2897269C198B.d01t01
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Volume 35, Issue 4, pages 368–373, April 1995
http://jcp.sagepub.com/content/35/4/368
Article first published online: 8 MAR 2013
DOI: 10.1002/j.1552-4604.1995.tb04075.x
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
6/15/1995Phase Istudy of PHENYLACETATE administered twice daily to patients with cancer
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7773944
A A Thibault, D D SAMID, … C E CE Myers
Cancer 75(12):2932-8 (1995), PMID.7773944
Cancer. 1995 Jun 15;75(12):2932-8
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
9/27/1995 – Increased susceptibility of ras-transformed cells to PHENYLACETATE is associated with inhibition of p21ras isoprenylation and phenotypic reversion.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7558439/
Shack S, Chen L-C, Miller AC, et al: (SAMID D)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910630122/abstract
Int J Cancer 63:124-129, 1995
Int J Cancer. 1995 Sep 27;63(1):124-9.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910630122/references
International Journal of Cancer
Volume 63, Issue 1, Article first published online: 17 JUL 2006
DOI: 10.1002/ijc.2910630122
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
10/1995 – Inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation in medulloblastoma and astrocytoma-derived cell lines with PHENYLACETATE.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7674018/
Stockhammer G, Manley GT, Johnson R, et al: (SAMID D)
J Neurosurg 83:672-681, 1995
J Neurosurg. 1995 Oct;83(4):672-81.
Cotzias Laboratory of Neuro-Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
10/12/1995 – Cytostatic activity of PHENYLACETATE and derivatives against tumor cells:

Correlation with lipophilicity and inhibition of protein prenylation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7488244/
Hudgins WR, Shack S, Myers CE, et al: (SAMID D)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006295295020133
Biochem Pharmacol 50:1273-1279, 1995
Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 Oct 12;50(8):1273-9.
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
2/1996 – Lipid metabolism as a target for brain cancer therapy:

Synergistic activity of lovastatin and sodium PHENYLACETATE against human glioma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8592143/
Prasanna P, Thibault A, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D)
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract
J Neurochem 66:710-716, 1996
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract;jsessionid=913EBF64F1FA2FD0D08BD94FDDE391D5.d03t01
J Neurochem. 1996 Feb;66(2):710-6.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract;jsessionid=E929EA030144CC973FECF4DAA1D9D50C.d01t04
Article first published online: 23 NOV 2002
DOI: 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
5/1996PHENYLACETATE is an inhibitor of prostatic growth and development in culture.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8627880/
Lipshutz JH, SAMID D, Cunha GR:
J Urol 155:1762-1770, 1996
J Urol. 1996 May;155(5):1762-70.
The Journal of Urology
Volume 155, Issue 5, Pages 1762-1770, May 1996
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, USA.

References:

12. SAMID D, Yen A, Prasanna P . Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE . Blood. 1992;80:1576
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
13. SAMID D, Shack S, Sherman LT . PHENYLACETATE: a novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation . Cancer Res . 1992;52:1988
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
15. Ram Z, SAMID D, Walbridge S, Oshiro EM, Viola JJ, Tao-Cheng J, et al. Growth inhibition, tumor maturation, and extended survival in experimental brain tumors in rats treated with PHENYLACETATE . Cancer Res . 1994;54:2923
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8187079/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923
16. Liu L , Shack S , Stetler-Stevenson WG , Hudgins WR , SAMID D . Differentiation of cultured human melanoma cells induced by the aromatic fatty acids PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate . J. Invest. Dermatol . 1994;103:335
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8077698/
18. SAMID D , Shack S , Myers CE . Selective growth arrest and phenotypic reversion of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE . J. Clin. Invest . 1993;91:2288
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8486788/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/

http://m.jci.org/articles/view/116457
19. Thibault A, Cooper MR, Figg WD, Venzon DJ, Sartor O, Tompkins AE, et al. (SAMID D) A phase 1 and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous PHENYLACETATE in patients with cancer . Cancer Res . 1994;54:1690
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8137283/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690
34. Sidell N, Wada R, Han G, Chang B, Shack S, Moore T, et al. al. (SAMID D). PHENYLACETATE synergizes with retinoic acid in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells . Int. J. Cancer . 1995;60:507
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7829265/
35. SAMID D, Ram Z, Hudgins WR, Shack S, Liu L, Walbridge S, et al. Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against gliomas: resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria . Cancer Res . 1994;54:891
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/
48. Fibach E, Prasanna P, Rodgers GP, SAMID D. Enhanced fetal hemoglobin production by PHENYLACETATE and 4-phenylbutyrate in erythroid precursor derived from normal donors and patients with sickle cell anemia and beta-thalassemia. Blood. 1993;82:2203
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7691251/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/82/7/2203.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/82/7/2203.full.pdf
49. George J , Dover GJ , Brusilow S , SAMID D . Increased fetal hemoglobin in patients receiving sodium 4-phenylbutyrate . N. Engl. J. Med . 1992;327:569
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1378939/
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
8/23/1996 – Activation of a human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor by the antitumor agent PHENYLACETATE and its analogs.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8759039/
Pineau T, Hudgins WR, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D)
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006295296003401
Biochem Pharmacol 52:659-667, 1996
Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Aug 23;52(4):659-67.
Laboratory of Molecular Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
9/1996 – The differentiating agent PHENYLACETATE increases prostate-specific antigen production by prostate cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8827086/
Walls R, Thibault A, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D)
Prostate 29:177-182, 1996
Prostate. 1996 Sep;29(3):177-82.
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
12/1996 – Up-regulation and functional role of p21Waf1/Cip1 during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells by PHENYLACETATE.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8959328/
Gorospe M, Shack S, Guyton KZ, et al: (SAMID D)
http://cgd.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/7/12/1609.pdf
Cell Growth Differ 7:1609-1615, 1996
Cell Growth Differ. 1996 Dec;7(12):1609-15.
Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Biology, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, NIH, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
and Experimental Therapeutics Program, University of Virginia
Cancer Center, Charlottesville, Virginia

References:
1. SAMID, 0., Shack, S., and Myers, C. Selective growth arrest and phenotypic reversion of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic pharmacological concentrations of PHENYLACETATE. J. Clin. Invest., 91: 2288- 2295, 1993.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8486788/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC288233/

http://m.jci.org/articles/view/116457
2. SAMID, D., Ram, Z., Hudgins, W. A., Shack, S., Liu, L, Walbridge, S., Oldfield, E. H., and Myers, C. E. Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against malignant gliomas: resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria. Cancer Res., 54: 891-895, 1994.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/

http://hwmaint.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/4/891
7. SAMID, D., Yeh, A., and Prasanna, P. Induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin production in human leukemic cells treated with PHENYLACETATE. Blood, 80: 1576-1581, 1992
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1381630/

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.abstract

http://m.bloodjournal.hematologylibrary.org/content/80/6/1576.full.pdf
8. Shack, S., Miller, A., Liu, L., Prasanna, P., Thibault, A., and SAMID, D. Vulnerability of multidrug-resistant tumor cells to the aromatic fatty acids PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate. Clin. Cancer Res., 2: 865-872, 1996.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9816242/

http://m.clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/2/5/865.abstract

http://m.clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/2/5/865.full.pdf
25. Shack, S., Chen, L-C., Miller, A. C., Danesi, A., and SAMID, D. Increased susceptibility of ras-transformed cells to PHENYLACETATE is associated with inhibition of p2i isoprenylation and phenotypic reversion. Int. J. Cancer, 63: 124-129, 1995.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7558439/
29. SAMID, D., Shack, S., and Sherman, L T. PHENYLACETATE. A novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res., 52: 1988- 1992, 1992.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988
30. Thibault, A., SAMID, D., Cooper, M. A., Figg, W. 0., Tompkins, A. C., Patronas, N., Headlea, 0. J., Kohler, 0. A., Venzon, 0. J., and Myers, C. E. Phase I study of PHENYLACETATE administered twice daily to patients with cancer. Cancer (Phila.), 75: 2932-2938, 1995.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7773944/

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1097-0142(19950615)75:12%3C2932::AID-CNCR2820751221%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
1997PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate as novel, nontoxic differentiation inducers
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9547596
D D SAMID, W R WR Hudgins, … C E CE Myers
http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4615-5325-0_67
Adv Exp Med Biol (1997), PMID.9547596
http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-1-4615-5325-0_67.pdf
Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;400A:501-5
DOI
10.1007/978-1-4615-5325-0_67
Eicosanoids and Other Bioactive Lipids in Cancer, Inflammation, and Radiation Injury 2
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Volume 400, 1997, pp 501-505
Clinical Pharmacology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD USA
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8/1997 – Modulation of radiation response of human tumor cells by the differentiation inducers, PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9269314/
Miller AC, Whittaker T, Thibault A, et al: (SAMID D)
Int J Radiat Biol 72:211-218, 1997
Int J Radiat Biol. 1997 Aug;72(2):211-8.
Armed Forces Radiobiology, Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA.
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3/1999Phase II study of PHENYLACETATE in patients with recurrent malignant glioma:
a North American Brain Tumor Consortium report
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/10071293/
S M Chang, J G Kuhn, … M D Prados
J Clin Oncol 17(3):984-90 (1999), PMID.10071293
J Clin Oncol. 1999 Mar;17(3):984-90
http://m.jco.ascopubs.org/content/17/3/984.long
References:

1. ↵ Hudgins WR, Shack S, Myers CE, et al: (SAMID D) Cytostatic activity of PHENYLACETATE and derivatives against tumor cells:

Correlation with lipophilicity and inhibition of protein prenylation. Biochem Pharmacol 50:1273-1279, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7488244/

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006295295020133
2. SAMID D, Ram Z, Hudgins WR, et al: Selective activity of PHENYLACETATE against malignant gliomas:

Resemblance to fetal brain damage in phenylketonuria. Cancer Res 54:891-895, 1994
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8313377/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891.abstract?ijkey=26b1701d60729aa2f907a74e3ae927f63a015c45&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/4/891
3. Stockhammer G, Manley GT, Johnson R, et al: (SAMID D) Inhibition of proliferation and induction of differentiation in medulloblastoma and astrocytoma-derived cell lines with PHENYLACETATE. J Neurosurg 83:672-681, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7674018/
4. ↵ Ram Z, SAMID D, Walbridge S, et al: Growth inhibition, tumor maturation, and extended survival in experimental brain tumors in rats treated with PHENYLACETATE. Cancer Res 54:2934-2927, 1994
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8187079/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2934.abstract?ijkey=03bc67e581ef77536842806b949046916458d548&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.abstract

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923.full.pdf

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/11/2923
13. ↵ Gorospe M, Shack S, Guyton KZ, et al: (SAMID D) Up-regulation and functional role of p21Waf1/Cip1 during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells by PHENYLACETATE. Cell Growth Differ 7:1609-1615, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8959328/

http://cgd.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/7/12/1609.pdf
14. Walls R, Thibault A, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D) The differentiating agent PHENYLACETATE increases prostate-specific antigen production by prostate cells. Prostate 29:177-182, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8827086/
15. Lipshutz JH, SAMID D, Cunha GR: PHENYLACETATE is an inhibitor of prostatic growth and development in culture. J Urol 155:1762-1770, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8627880/
16. ↵ Sidell N, Wada R, Han G, et al: (SAMID D) PHENYLACETATE synergizes with retinoic acid in inducing the differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells. Int J Cancer 60:507-514, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7829265/
17. ↵ Thibault A, SAMID D, Cooper MR, et al: Phase I study of PHENYLACETATE administered twice daily to patients with cancer. Cancer 75:2932-8, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7773944/
18. ↵ Thibault A, Cooper MR, Figg WD, et al: (SAMID D) A phase I and pharmacokinetic study of intravenous PHENYLACETATE in patients with cancer. Cancer Res 54:1690-1694, 1994
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8137283/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.abstract

http://hwmaint.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/7/1690

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690.full.pdf

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/54/7/1690
20. ↵ Shack S, Chen L-C, Miller AC, et al: (SAMID D) Increased susceptibility of ras-transformed cells to PHENYLACETATE is associated with inhibition of p21ras isoprenylation and phenotypic reversion. Int J Cancer 63:124-129, 1995
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7558439/

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.2910630122/abstract
21. ↵ SAMID D, Shack S, Sherman LT: PHENYLACETATE:

A novel nontoxic inducer of tumor cell differentiation. Cancer Res 52:1988-1992, 1992
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/1372534/

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract?ijkey=b0c2c07340bcd5d9d1bb114912e8e4b98226c9fd&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.abstract

http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988

http://m.cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/52/7/1988.full.pdf
22. ↵ Prasanna P, Thibault A, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D) Lipid metabolism as a target for brain cancer therapy:

Synergistic activity of lovastatin and sodium PHENYLACETATE against human glioma cells. J Neurochem 66:710-716, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8592143/

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1471-4159.1996.66020710.x/abstract;jsessionid=913EBF64F1FA2FD0D08BD94FDDE391D5.d03t01
24. ↵ Pineau T, Hudgins WR, Liu L, et al: (SAMID D) Activation of a human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor by the antitumor agent PHENYLACETATE and its analogs. Biochem Pharmacol 52:659-667, 1996
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/8759039/

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006295296003401
27. ↵ Miller AC, Whittaker T, Thibault A, et al: (SAMID D) Modulation of radiation response of human tumor cells by the differentiation inducers, PHENYLACETATE and phenylbutyrate. Int J Radiat Biol 72:211-218, 1997
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/9269314/
28. ↵ Piscitelli SC, Thibault A, Figg WD, et al: (SAMID D) Disposition of phenylbutyrate and its metabolites, PHENYLACETATE and phenylacetylglutamine. J Clin Pharmacol 35:368-373, 1995 Abstract
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7650225/

http://m.jcp.sagepub.com/content/35/4/368.abstract?ijkey=74bff0d86ce76b404728762fe2a1bfde1641fa41&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/j.1552-4604.1995.tb04075.x/abstract;jsessionid=DFDEF1599D764E2845EC2897269C198B.d01t01

http://jcp.sagepub.com/content/35/4/368

Antineoplastons: Phenylacetylglutaminate (PG or PAG), Phenylacetate (PN), and Phenylbutyrate (PB)

PHENYLACETYLGLUTAMINATE (PAG or PG) and PHENYLACETATE (PN) are metabolites of PHENYLBUTYRATE (PB) and are constituents of antineoplaston AS2-1
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
Antineoplastons AS2-1 and AS2-5 are DERIVED FROM A10
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
AS2-1 = 4:1 mixture of PHENYLACETIC ACID (PA) and PHENYLACETYLGLUTAMINE (PAG or PG)
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
Antineoplaston AS2-5 = PHENYLACETYLGLUTAMINE (PAG or PG)
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National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Antineoplastons
General Information: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page2
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
http://www.burzynskiclinic.com/scientific-publications.html
Review Articles on Clinical Trials:
�
1. 3/2004
�
Burzynski, S.R. The Present State of Antineoplaston Research. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2004;3:47-58.
http://www.burzynskiclinic.com/images/stories/Publications/994.pdf
Volume 3 Number 1 March 2004
DOI: 10.1177/1534735403261964
�
Pg. 48
�
Antineoplaston A2, which contributed to the highest number of complete responses in phase I clinical studies, was elected for final purification, isolation of active components, and structure determination.
Active ingredient identified as:
3-phenylacetylamino-2, 6-piperidinedione
and was named
antineoplaston A10. [27]
�
27. Burzynski SR, Hendry LB, Mohabbat MO, et al. Purification of structure determination, synthesis and animal toxicity studies of antineoplaston A10. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Congress of Chemotherapy. Vienna, Austria; 1983:17, PS. 12.4 11-4.
�
A10 has been reproduced by synthesis involving condensation of:
1-glutamine
with
phenylacetyl chloride
and subsequent cyclization of
phenylacetylglutamine (PG). [28]
�
28. Burzynski SR, Hai TT. Antineoplaston A10. Drugs of the Future. 1985;10:103-105.
�
Metabolism of A10 in human body yields:
phenylacetylglutamine (PG)
phenylacetylisoglutamine (isoPG)
phenylacetate (PN)
which were reproduced synthetically and formulated into:
antineoplaston
A10 injections (A10-I)
AS2-1
AS5
AS-25
[29-33]
�
29. Burzynski SR. Synthetic antineoplastons and analogs. Drugs of the Future. 1986;11:679-688.

30. Burzynski SR, Mohabbat MO, Lee SS. Preclinical studies of antineoplaston AS1-1 and antineoplaston AS2-5. Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1986;12(suppl 1):11-16.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3743376/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3743376/
31. Burzynski SR, Khalid M. Antineoplaston A10 injections. Drugs of the Future. 1986;11:364-365.

32. Burzynski SR, Khalid M. Antineoplaston AS2-1. Drugs of the Future. 1986;11:361-363.

33. Burzynski SR. Antineoplaston AS2-5.. Annual Drug Data Report. 1986;8-319.
�
These formulations were submitted for basic research and phase I clinical studies. [34-44]
�
34. Burzynski SR, Mohabbat MO, Burzynski B. Animal toxicology studies on oral formulation of antineoplaston A10. Drug Exptl Clin Res. 1984;10:113-118.

35. Burzynski SR. Phase I clinical studies of antineoplaston AS2-5 injections. In: Ishigami J, ed. Recent Advances in Chemotherapy. Tokyo, Japan: University of Tokyo Press; 1985.

36. Burzynski SR, Burzynski B, Mohabbat MO. Toxicology studies of antineoplaston AS 2-1 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1986;12(suppl 1):25-35.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3743378/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3743378/
37. Burzynski SR, Kubove E. Toxicology studies of antineoplaston A10 injections in cancer patients. Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1986;12(suppl 1):47-55.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3743380/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3743380/
38. Lehner AF, Burzynski SR, Hendry LB. 3-phenylacetylamino-2,6-piperidinedione, a naturally-occurring peptide analog with apparent antineoplastic activity may bind to DNA. Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1986;12(suppl 1):57-72.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3743381/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3743381/
39. Ashraf AQ, Liau MC, Mohabbat MO, et al. Preclinical studies of antineoplaston A10 injections. Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1986;12(suppl 1):37-45.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3743379/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3743379/
40. Ashraf AQ, Liau MC, Kampalath BN, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of radioactive antineoplaston A10 following oral administration in rats. Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1987;13(suppl 1):45-50.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3569015/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3569015/
41. Hendry LB, Muldoon TG, Burzynski SR et al. Stereochemical modeling studies of the interaction of Antineoplaston A10 with DNA. Drugs Exptl Clin Res. 1987;13(suppl 1):77-81.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3569020/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/3569020/
42. Ashraf AQ, Burzynski SR. Comparative study of antineoplaston A10 levels in plasma of healthy people and cancer patients. Adv Exptl Clin Chemother. 1988;2:19-28.

43. Ashraf AQ, Kampalath BN, Burzynski SR. Pharmacokinetic analysis of antineoplaston A10 injections following intravenous administration in rats. Adv Exptl Clin Chemother. 1988;6:33-39.

44. Burzynski SR, Kubove E, Burzynski B. Phase I clinical studies of oral formulation of antineoplaston AS2-1. Adv Exptl Clin Chemother. 1988;2:29-36.
�
A10
A10-I
AS2-1
were selected for phase II studies.
2 initial phase II studies in
ASTROCYTOMA
and
HIGH-GRADE GLIOMA
began in
1988
and
1990
and were conducted outside investigational new drug (IND) process.
�
Since 1994 the FDA authorized 74 phase II studies with
A10
A10-I
AS2-1
under INDs
43,742
22,029
in advanced malignancies.
�
Pg. 49
�
Phenylacetate (PN)
is active ingredient of
antineoplaston AS2-1.
�
Phenylglutamine (PG)
is main ingredient of
A10-I.
�
Phenylglutamine (PG) exhibits antineoplastic activity across wide array of cancer cell lines.
�
Phenylglutamine (PG)
inhibits uptake of growth-critical amino acids, such as:
1-glutamine
and
1-leucine
in neoplastic cells.
�
Reduction in amino acid availability may contribute to drug’s antineoplastic activity.
�
Human glioma (U-87) cells rapidly take up Phenylglutamine (PG) by mechanism similar to facilitated diffusion.
�
Upon removal of Phenylglutamine (PG) from media, PG rapidly and completely effluxes from the cell.
�
Phenylglutamine (PG)
enters cells via stereospecific amino acid transporters for
1-glutamine.
�
Formulations of
Antineoplastons:
�
Antineoplastons
are a class of 12 antitumor agents.
�
Following synthetic antineoplaston formulations used in phase II studies.
�
Antineoplaston A10
capsules contain 500 mg of
3-phenylacetylamino-2, 6-piperidinedione.
�
Antineoplaston A10 injection
is mixture of sodium salts of
Phenylglutamine (PG)
and
Phenylacetylisoglutamine (isoPG)
in 4:1 ratio.
�
Available in 500 mL and 1000 mL (300 mg/mL) plastic bags.
�
Antineoplaston AS2-1
capsules containing 500 mg of 4:1
Phenylacetate (PN)
and
Phenylglutamine (PG).
�
Antineoplaston AS2-1 injection
is mixture of
Phenylacetate (PN)
and
Phenylglutamine (PG)
in 4:1 ratio.
�
Available in 250 mL (80 mg/mL) plastic bags.
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Interim Reports on Clinial Trials:
�
18. 6/2005
�
INTEGRATIVE CANCER THERAPIES
�
BT-12
�
CHILDREN WITH PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS (PNET)
�
CAN-01
�
CAN-1
�
PATIENTS WITH REFRACTORY MALIGNANCIES
�
Burzynski, S.R., Weaver, R.A., Janicki, T., Szymkowski, B., Jurida, G., Khan, M., Dolgopolov, V.
�
Long-term survival of high-risk pediatric patients with PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMALTUMORS treated with Antineoplastons A10 and AS2-1
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15911929
Integrative Cancer Therapies 2005;4(2):168-177
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/15911929
Integr Cancer Ther. 2005 Jun;4(2):168-77
http://www.burzynskiclinic.com/images/stories/Publications/1220.pdf
DOI: 10.1177/1534735405276835
http://m.ict.sagepub.com/content/4/2/168.long?view=long&pmid=15911929
Antineoplastons (ANP) A10 and AS2-1, which are synthetic analogs of naturally occurring derivatives of glutamine, isoglutamine, and phenylacetic acid, have shown an increasing spectrum of activity in primary brain tumors. [1]
�
Review Articles on Clinical Trials:
�
1. 3/2004
�
Burzynski, S.R. The Present State of Antineoplaston Research. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2004;3:47-58.
http://www.burzynskiclinic.com/images/stories/Publications/994.pdf
Volume 3 Number 1 March 2004
DOI: 10.1177/1534735403261964
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IV. Aetna considers SODIUM PHENYLBUTYRATE medically necessary for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia and malignant glioma
http://www.aetna.com/cpb/medical/data/200_299/0240.html
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The FDA has approved SODIUM PHENYLBUTYRATE as a treatment to remove ammonia from the bloodstream in individuals with urea cycle disorders
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
SODIUM PHENYLBUTYRATE was given an orphan drug designation by the FDA for use as an adjunct to surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy for treatment of individuals with primary or recurrent malignant glioma
http://www.anthem.com/medicalpolicies/policies/mp_pw_a050524.htm
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
Cumulative List of all Products that have received Orphan Designation: Total active designations: 2002 Effecive: (sic – Effective:) 5/5/2009
http://www.fda.gov/downloads/forindustry/developingproductsforrarediseasesconditions/howtoapplyfororphanproductdesignation/ucm162066.xls
PHENYLBUTYRATE (PB) and SODIUM PHENYLBUTYRATE are listed alphabetically in the lower 1/4th of this document
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
Sodium Phenylbutyrate (PB)
Year – Pubmed (110 entries)
1958 1st entry
1995 1st clinical trial
2001 Phase 1
2009 Phase 2
2012 Phase 3
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
Phenylacetate (PN)
Year – Pubmed (29,686 entries)
1883 1st entry
1994 Phase 1
1999 Phase 2
2013 latest
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
Antineoplaston(s)
Year – Pubmed (88 entries)
1976 1st entry
1986 Phase 1
1999 Phase 2
2003 Phase 2 preliminary
2004 Phase 2 preliminary
2012 latest
� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �
National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Antineoplastons (PDQ®) Overview:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page1

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/patient
General Information:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page2
History:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page3
Laboratory/Animal/Preclinical Studies:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page4
Human/Clinical Studies:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page5
Adverse Effects:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page6
Summary of the Evidence for Antineoplastons:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page7
Changes to This Summary:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page8
About This PDQ Summary:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/healthprofessional/page9
Questions and Answers About Antineoplastons:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/patient/page2
Current Clinical Trials:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/patient/page3
Changes to This Summary:
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/antineoplastons/patient/page4